Yes. It’s a very broad question, so I’m not sure I can give you more than a broad answer, but here goes:
Virtually anything a learner can do in a Lectora-built course can trigger “Go to” actions. As an example, imagine your scenario as a multiple-choice question. (It might even actually be a multiple-choice question.) To create a branching scenario, you can just set a different “Go to” actions on each answer, so that learners who click Thing 1 go to page 2 but users who click Thing 2 go to page 18 or wherever. For organization, it may be helpful to keep branches in separate chapters, but it isn’t technologically necessary.
For complex branching, you may need to use variables, either the built-in variables for questions or custom ones. This would allow branching a learner who answered questions 1, 2, 3 with A,A,A differently from a learner who answered them with A,A,B or A,B,A or D,E,F, for instance.
Good luck! If you have more specific questions, I and others might be able to offer more specific help.